The works of Sakubei Yamamoto
Watercolor: All Genres

Mining Tools in the Meiji (1868-1912), Taisho (1912-1926) and the Early Showa (1926-1989) Eras, Excepting Tools Related to Machines
1964 - 1967

Meiji, Taisho no Saitan Dogu, Ichibu Showa, Tadashi Kikai ni yoru Dogu o Nozoku
[Mining Tools in the Meiji (1868-1912), Taisho (1912-1926) and the Early Showa (1926-1989) Eras, Excepting Tools Related to Machines]
38.1 x 54.7 cm Painting in Watercolors and Ink

Four Boxes on the Right

The Top Box
Lamps (kantera) in the Meiji Era (1868-1912)
Those lamps used rapeseed oil and kerosene or paraffin oil together half and half. They were made of tin. Miners sometimes put more kerosene or paraffin oil than rapeseed oil in these lamps and they produced a lot of soot.
Maru: Round Type
Kaku: Square Type

The Second Box
Gas Lamps (kantera) in the Late Meiji, Taisho, and Showa Eras (around 1900 to 1989)
Miners put water into the tops and carbide into the bottoms.
Maru Shinchu: Round Type Made of Brass Plate (right)
Hiyakashi-bo : a tool to hang and carry a lamp by hand (center)
Aen Ita Maru: Round Type Made of Zinc Plate (left)

The Third Box
Safety Lanterns in the Meiji and Taisho Eras (1868-1926)
(1) Clanny-type Safety Lantern with Only a Mesh Chimney
(2) Safety Lantern with a Glass Skirt Using Rapeseed Oil or Fish Oil
The glass skirt would break when it was inclined near 45 degrees, causing its light to become as dangerous as naked lights of normal lamps.

The Bottom Box
Safety Lanterns in the Late Meiji, Taisho, and Showa Eras (around 1900 to 1989)
At first phosphorous matches were used to light them and later a lighter was installed in each of the lanterns. The tank and chimney were fastened with magnets which local people called eriki.
Volatile oil was used for this type of lantern. The operations of adjusting the flame and the ignition with matches or lighters were done from the bottom.

Description of the Cap Lamp
The cap lamp became generally used around 1931 to 1935.

Description of Tools from the Top Center to the Bottom Left
Taisho karai-tebo: shouldering basket in the Taisho era (1912-1926)
bara sura: basket coal sled
hako sura: box coal sled
hanaguri: nose ring
karui: towing rope
kogaiyo: rake used on the surface
kakiita Showa: scraper used in the Showa era
ganzume kiriha-yo: rake used on coalfaces
kiriha-yo: small winnow used on coalfaces
Chikuho ebu/ebijoke, Saga hoge, zenkoku temi: winnow called an ebu or ebijoke in the Chikuho region, a hoge in Saga, and a temi nationally
Showa roku-shichinen kairyo tsuru: pickax improved around 1922 or 1923
tsurubashi: pickax
e kyujussenchi: 90-centimeter-long handle
senzoku/chikarasen: wedge
ryoto: double-headed pickax
kanaya: arrow head
waraji: straw sandals
atoyama: straw sandal for helpers
sakiyama: straw sandal for hewers
kogai: straw sandal used on the surface
kyuren: drag or poker
Meiji setto: hammer for chisels in the Meiji era (1868-1912)
setto Taisho: hammer for chisels in the Taisho era (1912-1926)
isshaku: 1-shaku-long (about 30-centimeter-long) chisel
ichinoji: chisel with a straight tip
hamaguri: chisel with a clam-shaped tip
sumiana-yo: chisel for boring holes in coalfaces
rappa: chisel with a trumpet-shaped tip
Showa sumiana: chisel for boring holes in coalfaces in the Showa era (1926- 1989)
senabo: yoke
senakago: a yoke and a pair of baskets
shumoku: stick
mae: front
ushiro: rear

Translation Assisted by Mr. Nathan Johndro

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