The works of Sakubei Yamamoto
Drainage and Ventilation

Pumps Used (Underground) at the Pit Bottom or First Stage in the Meiji (1868-1912), and Taisho (1912-1926) Eras
February 1967

Meiji, Taisho no Pompu (Konai) Tsuboshita, Daiichidan
[Pumps Used (Underground) at the Pit Bottom or First Stage in the Meiji (1868-1912), and Taisho (1912-1926) Eras]
37.6 x 53.9 cm Painting in Watercolors and Ink

Text at the Top
These were the steam and electric pumps used underground.
If both pumps were moved at one time, the electric pump only idled away, because a separate discharge pipeline was not used for the electric pump and so the drainage from it was checked by that from the steam pump. However, it was impossible for every pit to lay two discharge pipelines because they could not afford to do so.
In the early years of the Taisho era, electric pumps were introduced to pits in the Chikuho region. However, they were only used for supplying water on the surface, and vertical boilers and steam pumps were placed beside the electric pumps for fear of power cuts.
Around 1919, small and middle-scale coal pits began to use electric pumps to drain underground water. Some large-scale coal pits with their own power plants (such as Aso San-nai Coal Pit) had used electric pumps for that purpose before then. Nevertheless, steam was partly used for moving fans and winches in case of power cuts. One after another, small and middle-scale coal pits began to only use electric motors in the end of the Taisho era. However, these pits were troubled by power cuts. Pumps (such as Layton Pumps) used at slope headings in small-scale coal pits sometimes sank under water because most of such pits had water veins near the surface (uwamizu).
In the mid-Taisho era, electric pumps called three-throw pumps or truck pumps with wheels were used for drainage from slope headings. While making a loud noise, this pump drained water with three plungers moved by a three-throw crank shaft.
Worthington Pumps driven by compressed air were used at large-scale coal pits.

As for steam pumps, the Evans Steam Pump was introduced to pits in the latter half of the Meiji era, taking the place of the old Special Pump which was prone to fail. The Evans Pump had improved automatic slide valves inside its casing. It became able to be operated without using any handles. The valves in 4 chambers installed in this pump with a water suction cylinder 10 inches or larger were changed to rubber valves and became an excellent pump without frequent failures.

It is/was a problem with drainage at coal pits that a pump can/could not raise water more than 10 meters because of the atmospheric pressure.

Text on the Right of the Electric Pump
At small and middle-scale coal pits, mainly 50-HP electric pumps were used. The largest steam pump had an 18-inch (47 cm) steam cylinder.

Part Names of the Pumps
Electric Pump (Right)
(1) electric motor
(2) turbine
(3) couplings
(4) pressure release valve
(5) tee pipe
(6) bed
(7) pressure gauge
(8) current controller

Figure below the Electric Pump
fudo barufu: hood valve
sakushon kyukan: suction pipe
ana matawa madogata: round or square holes

Steam Pump (Left)
(1) steam cylinder
(2) water suction cylinder
(3) casing for 4-gate-valve chambers
(4) casing for slide valve
(5) casing for interconnection rod and packing
(6) air chamber
(7) sluice valve (suisu/surisu)
(8) bend/pipe elbow
(9) suction pipe with a bamboo strainer basket
take: bamboo
kyukan tebo: strainer basket
(10) discharge pipeline
(11) piston
(12) roller valve
(13) exhaust steam stop valve (used steam was exhausted together with drained water)
(14) lubricator
(15) steam stop valve

Translation Assisted by Mr. Nathan Johndro

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