The works of Sakubei Yamamoto
Drainage and Ventilation

How to Pump Water
May 1965

[How to Pump Water]
38.0 x 53.8 cm Painting in Watercolors and Ink

Text at the Bottom Right
During the Meiji era (1868-1912), small-sized steam pumps called Evans Sinking Pumps were used at slope bottoms (oroshisagari) after Special Pumps had been used for some time. At that time miners used their chisels for boring holes in coalfaces with their hands. A tsuri-bako (a hanging empty mine car like the shown mine car) waiting to be loaded with coal was supported by a pillar. In the middle of the Taisho era (1912-1926), electric pumps, called truck pumps or three-throw pumps were introduced to coal mines, and later in the Showa era (1926-1989), Layton Pumps also became used.
Since the beginning of the Taisho era, large-scale coal pits run by Nittetsu had already started using Worthington Pumps moved by compressed air. Nittetsu used jet pumps at some of their pits. In the Showa era, auger drills were also moved by compressed air. Small-scale coal pits did not have any air compressors, and auger drills were moved by electric power in such pits. Thus, small coal pits needed a lot of cab-tyre cables.

Text at the Bottom Center
Compressed air was useful for avoiding gas explosions and for air ventilation in large-scale coal pits.

Text at the Top Center (Explanation of the Two Insets at the Top Left)
These insets show how to drain water from a slope bottom with a normal electric turbine pump of more than 10 HP.
Underground water was sent into a box-type sump installed halfway in a slope through a jet pump.
Devices to draw water with jet pumps and waterwheels were used, both of which were moved by hydraulic pressure generated by electric pumps.
5 cubic meters of underground water was drawn by 10 cubic meters of water sent to the jet pump.

Words in the Two Insets at the Top Left
Right Inset
pompu suiage kan sakushon: pump suction pipe
zetto oshiage: piping for water pushed from a jet pump
Left Inset (Jet Pump)
pompu oshiage yori: piping for water drawn from a force pump
oroshi: slope

Words in the Inset at the Bottom
Nittetsu Inatsuki-ko no hakodome: Mine car stopper used at Nittetsu [Nittetsu Mining Co., Ltd.] Inatsuki Coal Pit
hachi bun no go inchi kake san ka ni bun no ichi inchi hiratetsu: flat iron 5/8 inch thick by 3 and a half inches wide

Words on the Big Pipe
fukan: air pipe
anakei: internal diameter
jugo inchi: 15 inches
juroku bun no ichi go rin ita: steel plate 1/16 inch or 5/1000 shaku thick

Translation Assisted by Mr. Nathan Johndro

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